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The end of Italian colonialism cannot simply be limited to Italy’s military defeat during the Second World War and the consequent loss of colonial possessions. In actuality, the Republic of Italy clamored for the restitution of the former colonies until the rejection of the Bevin-Sforza Compromise at the U.N. General Assembly in 1949. It is therefore justifiable to point out the reality of an Italian colonialism during the Republican era, with its specific characteristics, which was the premise of the decolonization processes for Libya, Eritrea and Somalia. This note takes into consideration the specificity of these three paths of decolonization with reference to the Italian transition from a renewed colonial policy to a real postcolonial one.