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After an overview of the Italian Catholics expectations towards the solution of the Questione Romana, this study carries out a review of the reactions to the signing of the Patti Lateranensi from the clergy and laity. We will see the endorsements of many, who saw in the event the end of years of contrasts between Church and State, both the achievement of an agreement with the fascist regime. At the same time, not the reservations and disappointments were lacking, even though they were minority of exponents of the dissolved Partito Popolare, which saw in those arrangements an undue support to the political establishment; others predicted changes in the programs of the Catholic organizations, directing them to form culturally and spiritually especially the élite members of the laity. After Mussolini’s speeches in the Camera dei deputati and in the Senato, on the procedures for the ratification of the Patti, the claim of the State’s superiority over the Church were viewed with concern. The tensions were loosened, inaugurating a consensus cooperation, but not free of momentary friction. However, the regime’s attempt to configure its own religion had to fade away in the face of the persistence of convictions and long-established cultic practices.