Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Lettere http://ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere Rendiconti di Lettere PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy it-IT Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Lettere 2384-9150 IL CARTEGGIO TRA GAETANO CATTANEO, FREDERIK MÜNTER E PIETRO TAMBURINI. FRA NUMISMATICA E GIANSENISMO http://ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/222 Cet essai examine la correspondance établie entre Gaetano Cattaneo et le savant danois Frederik Münter, dont douze lettres, datées des années 1815-1825, ont été conservées à la Bibliothèque Royale de Copenhague. Commencé pour des raisons strictement numismatiques, l’échange épistolaire permet toutefois de reconstruire une partie significative des rapports que Münter a entretenus avec l’Italie avant et après son retour dans sa patrie, survenu en 1787 au terme de quatre ans passés entre Naples et Rome. Cette correspondance apporte d’un côté diverses informations permettant de mieux retracer les liens de Münter avec la Lombardie où il résida quelques semaines lors du retour en Danemark, et où il fréquenta les milieux latomistes et se lia d’amitié avec entre autres Luigi Bossi, Gian Rinaldo Carli, Carlo Innocenzo Isimbardi et le comte Wilzeck. D’un autre côté, elle nous renseigne en détail sur la profonde estime unissant Münter aux théologiens jansénistes de l’Université de Pavie, Pietro Tamburini et Giuseppe Zola en premier lieu. Enfin, cet essai illustre comment Münter, proche des conceptions historico-théologiques des prélats jansénistes italiens, s’efforça d’en faire connaître la pensée au public cultivé de l’Europe du Nord. Federico Zuliani ##submission.copyrightStatement## I FATTORI DELLA VIRTÙ E LA CRONOLOGIA DELLE ETICHE DI ARISTOTELE http://ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/216 In this paper the author summarizes the main contentions made in his new book Abitudine e saggezza. Aristotele dall’Etica Eudemia all’Etica Nicomachea. In the Eudemian Ethics Aristotle makes moral virtue as the joint effect of reason and the gifts of nature, but in the Nicomachean Ethics, on the contrary, he does not even name nature and sees virtue as the product of habits and education. On this very point the NE quotes and praises Plato’s Laws, which Aristotle did not know when writing the EE. It seems clear, then, that in the interval between the two Ethics he had known Plato’s last work. Pierluigi Donini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-12-30 2014-12-30 COLLOQUE PISTIS ET FIDES. LE DE OFFICIIS CICÉRONIEN: UNE REFONDATION PHILOSOPHIQUE DE LA FIDES? http://ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/223 This study intends to follow the semantic evolution of the concept of fides in Cicero’s thought, from the rhetorical and oratorical works to the political ones till to the philosophical treatises of the latest years. One can generally say that before 54 b.C. , the date of publication of the De re publica, Cicero, a great user of the concept, at least in the rhetorical field, has a rather confused notion of it, founded on the search much less for its precise sense than for the effectiveness of its use. From this treaty he begins to wonder about its origin: if fides, as he believes, has a natural origin, how to explain its detachment from the world’s practices? It is, therefore, to understand what fides’ naturalness means; and this is what Cicero tries to do in the philosophical works of the latest period. First of all in the Academica he investigates the place fides occupies at the level of knowledge, in opposition to Lucullus’ dogmatic perspective. At the end of this reflection, permeating also the De Finibus and the De Natura Deorum, it comes out confirmed the natural origin of fides, on the condition that you rescue the concept of nature from the Epicurean reconstruction of axiology, founded on sensation and voluptas. This is what Cicero devotes himself to in his very last work, the De officiis, seeking to make of fides the very foundation of iustitia but also trying to reconcile its roots in nature with the variability of the circumstances: that is, giving a less intransigent interpretation of it, while maintaining its ideal value, which finds embodiment in the figure of Regulus. Carlos Lévy ##submission.copyrightStatement## WHAT IS SO SPECIAL ABOUT EMERGING ECONOMY MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES? http://ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/217 The phenomenon of Emerging Economy Multinational Enterprises (EMNEs) and their internationalization process have sparked the debate over the appropriateness of International Business theories to study EMNEs’ internationalization processes. The literature has extensively investigated what distinguishes EMNEs from Advanced Country Multinational Enterprises (AMNEs). This review summarizes and discusses some of the issues that have mostly attracted scholarly debate in this research area. We discuss the specificities of EMNEs: how they differ from AMNEs with respect to three very important and well studied topics: first, country-specific and firm-specific advantages; second, motivations for investing abroad; and third, different modes of entry into foreign markets. We conclude that EMNEs do differ from AMNEs, although these differences may be contingent and transitory. Roberta Rabellotti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-12-30 2014-12-30 LA GLOBALIZZAZIONE DELLA DISEGUAGLIANZA. ASPETTI TEORICI, EMPIRICI E DI POLICY http://ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/221 Since the beginning of the 90’s inequality, once again, become one of the central issues of the economic debate from different perspectives: theoretical, applied and of policy. Not only increased the attention toward the inequality within countries, but also toward the global one, that is the inequality between countries and between citizens of the world as they belong to a single community. The effects of globalization on inequality are still very controversial. According to some authors international integration has produced not only instability and recurring crises, but also a growing inequality within and between countries. For other authors, instead, inequality and poverty decreased with the globalization. This paper will analyze the issue of global inequality mainly from an empirical standpoint. First of all, however, it will be discussed some issues related to the definition of the phenomenon with reference to the theoretical as well to the normative aspects. The empirical analysis will be undertaken by distinguishing the weight of the inequality between countries from that within countries on global inequality. Changes of synthetic indexes will be calculated, but also the differences in income’s distribution in each country will be analyzed. This kind of analysis, innovative with respect to the traditional ones, will allow to observe how the differences in the income’s distribution of industrialized and of developing countries can justify phenomena of the global economy such as, for example, migratory flows. Renata Targetti Lenti ##submission.copyrightStatement## DELIO TESSA STUDENTE ALL’UNIVERSITÀ DI PAVIA http://ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/218 Delio Tessa (1886-1939), the writer and dialect poet of Milan has accomplished his studies at the University of Pavia, attending the Faculty of Law. His career as a student was not particularly brilliant and, as it results from his prose writings, published after his death, his recollections of that town remained only sentimental and a source of poetic inspiration. Mario Pisani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-12-30 2014-12-30 L’EDIZIONE CRITICA DEI «PURITANI» DI VINCENZO BELLINI: ALCUNI ASPETTI DI METODO http://ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/220 The critical edition of I Puritani, published in 2013, provides an opportunity for some reflections on the nature of the operatic score compared with that of the literary text. Unlike the latter, the written dramatic-musical text does not coincide with the artwork; rather, it is the premise to the creation of a complex event, the theatrical performance. Bellini’s opera excellently exemplifies the point: the author’s thought is transmitted by multiple sources, each of which contains variants that are not in conflict with each other; they embody a compositional thought that contains within itself the flexibility of the performance. A case in point is offered by metronome markings: Bellini wrote up to four different indications for the same passage in different manuscripts. None of these should be considered to represent the author’s final idea; rather, they delimit the spectrum of options within which the interpreter is called to choose. Fabrizio Della Seta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-12-30 2014-12-30 RIFLESSIONI SUL TESTO DELLA COMMEDIA DANTESCA http://ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/219 After a brief overview of the national edition of Dante’s works and the essential critical bibliography concerning the poem’s text, the author focuses on Petrocchi’s edition of the ‘antica vulgata,’ on the subsequent attempts by Lanza and Sanguineti (based on Bédier’s method), and the generous experiment by Paolo Trovato (based on Lachmann’s method). These proposals can be integrated with the idea (supported by Padoan, Pasquini, and Veglia) of a diffusion by groups of cantos characterised, from the outset, by the interference of oral transmission. The article also examines a number of supposedly indifferent variants (taken from Petrocchi’s critical apparatus), where one of the two alternatives can be recognised as the copyist’s initiative, so as to exclude any doubt that it provides an authorial variant. Emilio Pasquini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2014-12-30 2014-12-30