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Animal regeneration was a major subject of investigation in the 18th century Europe. Lazzaro Spallanzani was one of the most active experimenters, he was able to demonstrate the regenerative abilities of many invertebrates and even some vertebrates. At the beginning of the 20th century in the General Pathology laboratory of the University of Pavia directed by Camillo Golgi, a young researcher, Aldo Perroncito, succeeded for the first time in understanding and describing the process of regeneration of peripheral nerves after experimental cut. His research had a great impact also for the subsequent surgical applications. Perroncito’s studies paved the way for the first attempts at operations on patients wounded during the World War I for the functional restoration of the injured nerves conducted by the University of Pavia graduated medical doctors Giovanni Verga and Guido Sala.