Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Scienze Rendiconti di Scienze PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy it-IT Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Scienze 1974-6989 NOTA SUI LIMITI FISIOLOGICI DELLE IMMERSIONI PROFONDE IN APNEA <p>This article discusses the limits of deep breath-hold diving in humans. After a short historical introduction and a discussion of the evolution of depth records, the classical theories of breath-hold diving limits are presented and discussed, namely that of the ratio between total lung capacity and residual volume and that of blood shift, implying an increase in central blood volume. Then the current vision is introduced, based on the principles of the energetics of muscular exercise. The new vision has turned the classical vision upside down, moving the discussion to a different level. A direct consequence of the new theory is the importance of having large lung volumes at the start of a dive, in order to increase body oxygen stores. I finally discuss the role of anaerobic lactic metabolism as a possible mechanism of oxygen preservation, thus prolonging breath-hold duration.</p> Guido Ferretti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-04 2021-03-04 10.4081/scie.2020.705 TMek: UN MICROCHIP PER DIAGNOSTICARE LA MALARIA IN MODO QUANTITATIVO E RAPIDO <p>Despite the huge efforts for malaria eradication, this infectious disease still represents a critical issue worldwide, with 3.5 billion people still at risk, 229 million new cases and 409.000 deaths in 2019. The infection is caused by the Plasmodiun parasite which attacks red blood cells, feeds on hemoglobin and transform it into hemozoin nanocrystals. In this paper we report on a novel pan-malaria test (TMek), based on the paramagnetic properties of hemozoin nanocrystals, which allows for the automatic quantification of infected red blood cells (i-RBCs) on a microchip. Exploiting the competition between gravity and magnetic forces, i-RBCs in a whole blood specimen are captured on micromagnetic concentrators and electrically detected, allowing for the measurement of their concentration with a limit of sensitivity down to 10 parasites/μl.</p> Riccardo Bertacco Francesca Milesi Pietro Lorenzo Coppadoro Marco Giacometti Gianfranco Beniamino Fiore Giorgio Ferrari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-26 2021-03-26 10.4081/scie.2020.720 NUOVE ESCHE PER PESCARE NEL <em>MARE MAGNUM DELL’EREDITÀ CULTURALE</em> <p>We describe here a novel tool for exploring documents pertaining to the world Cultural Heritage while avoiding their contamination or damage. Known under the acronym EVA, it consists of a plastic foil of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate studded with strong cation and anion resins admixed with C<sub>8</sub> and C<sub>18</sub> hydrophobic beads. When applied to any surface such foils can harvest any type of surface material, which is then eluted and analysed via standard means, such as GS/MS (typically for metabolites), MS/MS (for peptide and protein analysis), X-ray (for elemental analysis). We briefly review here a number of past data, such as screening of original documents by Bulgakov, Chekov, Casanova, Kepler, while dealing in extenso with very recent data, pertaining to Orwell and Stalin and analysis of the skin of an Egyptian mummy. The technique was also successfully applied to paintings, such as the Donna Nuda at the Hermitage in St. Petersburg, attributed to Leonardo and his school. This novel methodology represents a formidable tool for exploring the past life of famous authors, scientist and literates in that it can detect traces of their pathologies and even drug consumption left by saliva and sweat traces on their original hand-written documents.</p> Pier Giorgio Righetti Gleb Zilberstein ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-04 2021-03-04 10.4081/scie.2020.706 RECENTI SVILUPPI NELLA RISONANZA MAGNETICA NUCLEARE A PAVIA <p>Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a crucial experimental technique for the study of matter in several fields and applications, as for example in physics, chemistry, materials science, biology, medicine and food science. By means of this technique, the NMR group of the University of Pavia (UniPV) has given valuable scientific contributions to the Condensed Matter Physics and to the Physics applied to the Biomedical sector. In this note we’ll illustrate some of the most relevant results produced by the researchers of&nbsp;the group within decades of work carried out with passion and dedication, with examples regarding the Molecular Magnets, the High Tc Superconductors, the contrast agents and the hyperpolarization of molecules for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. We’ll also report some preliminary results obtained at the Preclinical Imaging Facility of UniPV, recently founded with the key contribution of the NMR group.</p> Marta Filibian Pietro Carretta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-04 2021-03-04 10.4081/scie.2020.707 TERMOELETTRICITÀ: DALL’ARCO DI ALESSANDRO VOLTA AI GENERATORI TERMOELETTRICI FERRO-LIQUIDI <p>We start this concise review from the exciting history of thermoelectricity in which such names as Luigi Galvani, Alessandro Volta, Thomas Seebeck, Walter Nernst, William Tompson, Georg Wilhelm Hegel and many others have been involved. We then move on to the main concepts in description of thermoelectric phenomena, discuss how to increase their magnitude and efficiency, formulate the requirements for modern thermoelectric materials and present thermoelectric applications that are already available.</p> Andrey A. Varlamov Sergei G. Sharapov Ioulia Chikina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 10.4081/scie.2020.721 I PARASSITI NELLA STORIA DELL’UOMO: INFEZIONI DEL PASSATO, MALATTIE NEL PRESENTE <p>This article will present the concept of evolutionary mismatch, in relation to the reduction in the circulation of pathogenic (or quasi-pathogenic) microorganisms&nbsp;and macro-parasites in human populations, throughout human and pre-human history. In particular, we will refer to the variegated community of parasites and microorganisms, prokaryotes or eukaryotes, pathogenic or only marginally or occasionally pathogenic, which evolved as inhabitants of our bodies together with us human beings and our ancestors. For simplicity, we will generically refer to these organisms as parasites. These organisms, once present endemically in the populations of our species, are believed to have developed a complex network of interactions with our physiological systems, particularly with regard to stimulation of the immune system. In this dynamic, the host organism, in turn, would have evolved countermeasures to the chronic presence of parasites, with a bias towards the modulation of the immune response, somehow specific for the different types of stimulation determined by the parasites. The drastic reduction in the circulation of parasites in industrialized societies would therefore have left an imbalanced immune system behind it. According to this view, which we can refer to as the “hygiene hypothesis”, the increase in the incidence of various immune-mediated diseases in industrialized countries would be attributable, at least in part, to this imbalance of the immune function.</p> Claudio Bandi Beatrice Bisaglia Alessandro Alvaro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-05 2021-05-05 10.4081/scie.2020.722 ARCHITETTURA MOLECOLARE DI FATTORI DI TRASCRIZIONE DEL DNA <p>Transcription factors are proteins involved in one of the most important molecular processes in living cells: the expression of genes through a mechanism called “transcription”. Transcription factors, their structure, and function are the topic of the seminar which also includes an overview of the current level of knowledge, the potentialities and problems in this research field, and the possible applications.</p> Marco Nardini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-04 2021-03-04 10.4081/scie.2020.708